From Around the World – More International Research and Reports

February 2021

Individualised Funding: A Realist Analysis to Identify the Causal Factors That Facilitate Positive Outcomes – Article, Disabilities 2021

By Padriac Fleming, Sinead McGilloway, and Steve Thomas

This article takes things further following the work of the 2019 systematic review by Fleming et al. which was featured on the tab called: Did You Know? To find out more about this re-examination of the qualitative findings, please read the Abstract and then link to the article below. 

Abstract: There is growing interest, internationally, in empowering people with disabilities, and the United Nations have identified individualised funding as one way in which empowerment might be achieved. ‘Individualised funding’ is an umbrella term for various publicly funded support structures that provide personalised and individualised support services for people with a disability. These aim to facilitate self-direction, empowerment, independence, and self-determination. The findings of a recent mixed-methods systematic review of studies undertaken during an approximate 25-year period suggest positive effects with respect to quality of life, client satisfaction, and safety, as well as very few adverse effects, although the evidence on cost-effectiveness was inconclusive. This paper involved a re-examination of the qualitative findings of that review by employing a realist framework to explore the interplay between key contexts and mechanisms, and how these facilitate or inhibit positive outcomes associated with individualised funding and its underlying programme theory.

Click here to download this document.

Citation: Fleming, Padraic; McGilloway, Sinead; Thomas, Steve. 2021. “Individualised Funding: A Realist Analysis to Identify the Causal Factors That Facilitate Positive Outcomes” Disabilities 1, no. 1: 47-57.
Article link:

February 2020

Impact of transition to an individualised funding model on allied health support of participation opportunities

By Kristen Foley, Stacie Attrill, Sue McAllister, and Chris Brebner

Abstract Introduction: The National Disability Insurance Scheme is the new consumer-controlled funding system for people with disability in Australia, and is expected to enhance participation outcomes of people with disability. This research explored participation opportunities for people with disability during the formative period of transition to the scheme, through stakeholder accounts of changes in allied health service contexts.

“Introduction: Many countries are shifting from government managed to consumer-controlled funding to provide support for people with disability. This shift is motivated by a human rights framework, where people with disability are enabled to take up the ‘full citizenship’ they have been previously denied as a result of paternalistic and bureaucratic system design [1] (p. 4) see also [2–4]. This human rights narrative is evident in Australia’s transition to the consumer-controlled National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS), which replaced a disability funding system that was described as “underfunded, unfair, fragmented, and inefficient” for people with disability who had “little choice, no certainty of access to appropriate supports and little scope to participate in the community” [5]. Providing choice and control to people with disability were key principles that underpinned the NDIS policy.”

Click here to download this document.

Citation: Kristen Foley, Stacie Attrill, Sue McAllister & Chris Brebner (2020): Impact of transition to an individualised funding model on allied health support of participation opportunities, Disability and Rehabilitation, DOI: 10.1080/09638288.2020.1725157
Article link:

November 2016

Citizenship: A guide for providers of support

By Sam Sly and Bob Tindall, Published by the Centre for Welfare Reform

Please note that in this publication, you will see the phrase ‘people with learning disabilities’ which means the same thing as ‘people with a developmental disabilities’ in Canada.  This publication outlines the Keys to Citizenship which have been used with all kinds of people to improve their lives. These principles/keys apply equally to everyone. The keys are: purpose, freedom, money, home, help, life and love.  Shaping services and supports around these keys helps people with disabilities achieve full citizenship. This booklet is a must read. 

Click here to download this booklet.

February 2015

Make it So: Lead the change you want: connecting leaders globally
Creating high quality individualised outcomes: The role of innovative funding leadership in making this happen

Prepared by Lorna Sullivan (NZ) and Michael Kendrick (US)

Most countries have established (or are establishing) national policy work on a range of innovative funding approaches. This report focuses on the following countries: Canada, the UK, New Zealand, Australia and Ireland as these are the countries participating in the International Initiative for Disability Leadership (IIDL.)

The paper examines how individualised service approaches and responsive funding arrangements have developed across member countries. It is not a definitive literature search, but rather a brief snapshot of some national or state resources and activities.

Click here to read this ‘snapshot.’

July 2010

Effectiveness of individual funding approaches for disability support

By Karen Fisher, Ryan Gleeson, Robyn Edwards, Christiane Purcal, Tomasz Sitek, Brooke Dinning, Carmel Laragy, Lel D’Aegher, and Denise Thompson

This report highlights the effectiveness of individual funding approaches for disability support in Australia: how people and organizations manage effective individual funding, along with their experiences with it. The effectiveness of individual funding was assessed through a mixed-method design that involved various methods including a literature review; interviews with people with disabilities, families and staff; case studies; and more.

Click here to download this document.

Citation: Fisher, Karen R and Edwards, Robyn and Gleeson, Ryan and Purcal, Christiane and Sitek, Tomasz and Dinning, Brooke and Laragy, Carmel and D’Aegher, Lel and Thompson, Denise, Effectiveness of Individual Funding Approaches for Disability Support (July 2, 2010). FaHCSIA Occasional Paper No. 29, Available at SSRN: or

Back to Say Yes!